Curriculum – first 100 years

In his last term after 17 years as Headmaster of Bedales, Keith Budge is writing a series of six reflections on the school. The theme of this fourth blog is ‘Curriculum – first 100 years’.

When Bedales began in 1893, it was the second of the so-called New Schools, Abbotsholme, where John Badley had begun his teaching career, being the first. Reacting against something (the rigidities and classical basis of the Victorian public school curriculum) was fair enough, but a New School needed to answer two crucial questions: What should be taught? How should it be taught?

My previous reflections on place and relationships show the importance of individuality, personal growth, the influence of environment and balancing the work of head, hand and heart.

So, first of all what do you teach? Move away from dominance of the Classics (Greek and Latin) as the primary way both of teaching your own languages and for training the young brain. In the chapter on The Middle Years in Memories and Reflections (1955) Badley focuses in particular on what would be taught in the Middle Years, before the specialisation required for the School Certificate at 15 or 16. Here just under half of the time was spent on languages (including English) and history. Just over half was taken with Maths, Science and practical training in wood and metal work, domestic economy, music and drawing.

Secondly, how? Have the formal curriculum occupy a smaller proportion of time, but create more variety and increase the pace at which the pupils learn by what we would call now active learning – learning through doing. As a result (again from The Middle Years) teaching would be “as varied as possible, both in subject matter and in manner of treatment”.

Central to the method, the How, was the organisation of the day: the morning given over to “school work” HEAD; the afternoon to “outdoor activities” (farm work and games) HAND; and the evening to “social interaction” HEART.

See below the digest from the start of Badley’s Bedales; A Pioneer School (1923) which gives a handy overview and the brightly coloured timetable from 1903.

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Timetable 1903

 

Pioneer, experimental, new – they are all involve trying things out: and that’s what they did.

Whilst at the Old Bedales, they experimented with extending the usual public school custom of an hour’s work before breakfast to two hours. Result? They abandoned even the one hour, discovering that this led to “so much increased vigour in the rest of the day’s work”. Modern research agrees.

In 1920 Dr Montessori herself visited Dunhurst and admired the work of her protégée, Amy Clarke, the Dunhurst Head. The “project method” (an outcome of John Dewey’s “experimental work”) became an established thing with the older classes at Dunhurst – Badley cites the “building of a Viking ship” as an example: a brilliant example of cross-curricular, learning-through-doing work: “a practical demonstration of the need of various kinds of knowledge and of their inter-relatedness”.

The Dalton Plan was tried for two years in the early 1920s; although it was formally abandoned, the balance between what you were taught in “class work” and what you were expected to do in “individual work” had shifted as a result of the experiment towards the latter.

Other innovations included taking English seriously as a subject: Geoffrey Crump, appointed Senior English Master in 1919, was said to be one of the first of his kind in an English Public School.

Turning to the national educational scene, the role of Bedales in establishing the first Design O Level in the 1970s resulted from the school’s unusual position in combining Craft, Design and Technology and in the inspirational work of Biff Barker and David Butcher. In the mid 1970s over 80% of a year group took Design O Level.

In summary, in 1911 in one of his Talks in Peace and War on “the intellectual side of school work”, Badley gives three reasons for this kind of work: use (ie. the practical benefit your subjects give you), pleasure and training. It is unsurprising that in the rest of the talk he majors on pleasure: “true ambrosial food” can as naturally come from Science as from literature and great art. The educational experience should shape each pupil’s life through the New School being “a place full of active and joyous life”. (Bedales: A Pioneer School)

Next week – Bedales Assessed Courses.

By Keith Budge, Headmaster, Bedales Schools

900 year old craft

Conversations with Henry and John Russell and Gabriel Langlands, our OB craftsmen, take you into a world of wood, oak above all, of dowel joints and grain. Hearing them talk about their work, instruct me and the students working to prepare the oak skeleton currently lying in the Barnyard that will become the Sam Banks Pavilion, is a reminder of how timeless this craft of vernacular green oak building is. OK, some of those robust Saxon techniques and customs, such as always using an axe, rather than a saw (“Saws are for sissies, son, here’s an axe…”) have been overtaken, and, yes, the Normans had some half decent ideas about constructing with wood, but most of the techniques we are using are a good 900 years old. With Badley Celebration Weekend imminent, this is a great way to be reminded of how central making and doing need to be to our school’s lives.

By Keith Budge, Headmaster Bedales Schools


Bedales School is one of the UK’s top independent private co-education boarding schools. Bedales comprises three schools situated in Steep, near Petersfield, Hampshire: Dunannie (ages 3–8), Dunhurst (ages 8–13) and Bedales itself (ages 13–18). Established in 1893 Bedales School puts emphasis on the Arts, Sciences, voluntary service, pastoral care, and listening to students’ views. Bedales is acclaimed for its drama, theatre, art and music school. The Headmaster is Keith Budge.

Vivid and distinctive impressions that only a Dunhurst Parents’ Day can provide

Saturday is enlivened by a series of vivid and distinctive impressions that only a Dunhurst Parents’ Day can provide. To Creative Studies first of all: joining the characterful Block 2 gargoyle projects with their fixed grimaces in stone-effect finish are such wonders as Groups 2’s Peruvian Mocheware Stirrup Pots, which have been a product of the pupils learning about the Moche people, as well as their coling and modelling techniques. Block 1’s perspective work has taken them into De Chirico’s world of surrealist perspective. It is absorbing stuff  which shows what can happen when intellect, hand and imagination work together.  Next stop is The Comedy of Errors in the marquee. Simon K-P has taken the plot and, well, Simon K-P-ed it, re-shaping it into a work that involves teams of loony scientists, melees of press, swirls of nightclub dancers, squads of law enforcers, motley crews of sailors and, perhaps most memorably, phalanxes of nuns. All this is on top of a band, whose songs have mainly been written by Dunhurst pupils. With all of Blocks 1 and 2 involved (124 pupils), it is a hugely impressive show and an extraordinary feat of logistics and creativity. Along with providing great entertainment to a packed audience, it is great testimony to the power of theatre to engage and enliven. I would be very surprised if any of that vast cast and band does not look back on the weeks leading up to the production and the shows themselves with a very warm feeling about theatre and, more broadly, what happens when you work hard together in a common cause.

By Keith Budge, Headmaster, Bedales Schools


Bedales School is one of the UK’s top independent private co-education boarding schools. Bedales comprises three schools situated in Steep, near Petersfield, Hampshire: Dunannie (ages 3–8), Dunhurst (ages 8–13) and Bedales itself (ages 13–18). Established in 1893 Bedales School puts emphasis on the Arts, Sciences, voluntary service, pastoral care, and listening to students’ views. Bedales is acclaimed for its drama, theatre, art and music. The Headmaster is Keith Budge.